A lot of the life of an engineer is solving problems which are inadequately stated, with inadequate data, time, and money.  This note is one engineer’s look at what scientists have been doing with their time and effort.  If you read it, you will find:

1. A method for electromagnet waves to propagate in our world.

    The mathematics for this is known but not the physical model.

    2. The two slit wave experiment does not show a particle model through a single slit, and has major problems to show how photons split into two photons and recombine

    3. The Big Bang and the Doppler Effect of moving signal sources.

    4. There was no reason to assume that gravity was an attractive force and not a pushing force or something similar.

    5. Energy propagation of matter can be made into a continuum of solid, liquid, gas, wave.  Each change is a change of state.  This explains the supposed wave/particle duality.

    6. How the entanglement of photons can move information in zero time and through space.


    One of the big unsolved mysteries in physics is how electromagnetic waves propagate through our universe.  This, of course, includes light.  This writing is an effort to offer a possible solution to the method of propagation of light and other such waves.   Great efforts have been made in the past to solve this mystery.  Great minds, and centuries of various tries have all failed.   Basically, there does not appear to be any material or medium in which the waves move.   The Michelson-Morley experiment was devised to discover this medium. 

    We live in what I will call four-space, three physical dimensions and time.  No method had been found for light to propagate in our space, so an ever-present ether was suggested as a medium to support propagation.  Using the earth’s velocity through this proposed static ether, they sent two light beams out, one in the direction of the earth orbiting velocity, and one at ninety degrees.  The assumption was that the measured speed of light would be different in the two directions.  The speed of light was the same in both directions so it was assumed the ether did not exist.

    There are a couple of things wrong, not with the experiment, but in the interpretation of the data.  The first was that if light was exclusively moving through the ether, why did it react with measurement instruments in our four-space? Since light does interact with our four-space measuring instruments, it is taken as proven in this writing that in the propagation of light there is contact with physical things in our four-space.  Therefore, light propagates to some unknown extent in our four-space.  The second problem was the assumed method of how it moved in a static ether relative to the earth’s motion.  They did not disprove the existence of a possible unknown medium.  They only disproved the existence of one with their assumed static properties.  Good work at the time, but it should have been continued.  The important thing is that the propagating light must has contact with objects in our four-space.  The idea of the existence of an ether type medium with different properties will be offered now in this write-up.  To repeat.  The important point is that the light has contact with or some interaction with everything that is in our four-space.  

    Let us examine light from a star far away.  Assume that it took a million of our years for the light to get here in our four-space.  However, according to the accepted theory of light propagation, at the speed of light, time was instantaneous from the point of view of the light. 

    We have a difficult time visualizing electric field propagation without some kind of a material thing being involved.  The conclusion at present is apparently that the fields propagate with nothing being used as a medium.  Let us go deeper into that area.  The work done to examine atomic particles of all kinds has been miraculous.  We do have particles with a property of a lifetime in our four-space.  Then, they just disappear.  We also have particles that suddenly appear in our four-space and then disappear again.  So where do they come from and to where do they disappear?  That place is what I call the no-time-no-space, NTNS, region that our four-space came from in the beginning.  It exists right before our eyes and everywhere else.  It is a reservoir or all kinds of particles.  It has enough particles to help propagate the output of a star.  The propagation of electromagnetic fields is partly in NTNS and partly in our four-space, therefore, it is an interface wave.  The energy is in NTNS and the guiding structure is our four-space.  Just like the energy going through a power line with no energy in the wire, but is guided by the surface interface of the wire.   The energy in a sixty-cycle power line propagates in the air along the guiding interface of the surface of the wires and free space.  Energy in the wire is lost as heat.  All of this establishes that there are electric fields that propagate as interface waves.  

    Waves on the surface of a body of water are interface waves.  Radio waves that propagate from Hawaii to the U.S.A. can be guided along an interface of layers of air of two different temperatures.  They are guided by the interface.  The propagation of light in our four-space is guided and controlled by physical things in our four-space.   Therefore, it is at least partially in our four- space.  This describes the interface between our four-space and an unknown, invisible ‘ether’ that exists throughout our four-space.  This I call NTNS. 

    We are limited in our visualizations by what we can understand from our experience in four-space.  We can visualize time going on forever.  We cannot visualize the beginning of time.   Therefore, we start with:

    Axiom 1:  Our four-space came from a place of no time and no space, NTNS.  All things in four-space originated from NTNS

    Many people have spent lifetimes chasing the big bang and other ideas of where we came from.  I offer the next axiom to correct that idea.

    Axiom 2:  Our four-space mathematics cannot solve where the four-space itself came from.   People have wasted lifetimes trying to do this.

    Axiom 3:  There exists a barrier right before our eyes between our four -space and NTNS.  Particles go back and forth through it all the time.

    This is the big step. I offer:


    The materials for everything in our four-space came from NTNS.  That light and all electromagnetic waves propagate in an interface between our four-space and the invisible NTNS.  They originate in and are guided by our four-space existence but also move through a particle filled NTNS.


    One of the most famous experiments in physics is the two slit experiment which supposedly shows that photons can act as waves or particles.  This is the standard interpretation which is taught to students and they accept it from the authority figures, the professors.  I take a different position using their data.   

    A photon is sent though a single slit and the interaction with the target forms a single pattern which supposedly shows that the photon has acted as a particle.  This is wrong.  A diffraction pattern is seen when using a single slit.  When sent through two slits, the pattern supposedly shows wave propagation and an interference pattern on the target.   In fact, both the actual data does not show these results and the whole basic interpretation is wrong. 

     If you see the wider pattern from the single slit test, you will see on each side of the main single pattern a small dark area and then another set of patterns on both sides of the large center area.  These two other areas show the diffracted pattern caused by diffraction by the two sides of the single slit.  The single slit pattern does not show that the photon acted as a particle when it went through the slit.  It acted as a wave. 

    The correct interpretation of all the data is totally different from all the historically written conclusions.  The correct interpretation is that the photon acts as a wave when propagating and looks like it acts as a particle when it is absorbed by a material in our four-space.   But even that is not exactly correct.  Here is what really happens.

    Start with the visualization of a photon of specific frequency that can be absorbed by a large solid material.  The photon is similar to radio wave that is propagating and meets an antenna.  The large wave transforms into causing electrons to move in the metal antenna.  If a photon of a specific visible frequency is absorbed by a solid, it can be absorbed by one of the atoms or electrons out of millions of possible atoms since the wave is so much larger than an atom.  The absorbing atom has an electron orbiting at just the right direction and place to receive that transferred energy and jumps into a higher orbit.  This is a change of state from a wave to what is called a particle.  In the slit experiments there is a change of state when the wave is absorbed by the target.  The photons in the experiments act as waves until they interact and are absorbed by an object in our four-space.  The uncertainty of location is caused by which part of the wave matches the receiving atom structure at an instant.  The whole idea of saying it acted as a propagating particle is wrong.

    What a change in state means is that materials can be solids, liquids, gases, or waves.   (Don’t bother me with plasma.) What all this talk is about is that there is a series of possible states of materials including the change of small quantities of atoms or electrons into a previously unrecognized state of waves which exists mainly in the NTNS region, which is everywhere.

    The other major problem with the two slot experiments is that if a single photon goes through two slits and acts as two photons on the other side of the slits, this would cause all kinds of problems to understand.  Let us take a photon of red visible light and send it through the two slits, and it splits into two independent photons.  Does half the energy go through each slit?  If so, the wavelength has to change.  If the wavelength changes, the energy changes. Then the two electrons have to meet and recombine to the original power and wavelength.  Someone else can explain how photons can split and/or combine.  I did enough here to just point out that the single slit data does not show particle action.  I will just point out that one of the missing parts of the experiment is a partial wall on the second side of the slits to partially block a path from one of the slits and prove that the supposedly two slit patterns are really caused by there being two independent paths to a single point.  There are also a lot of problems with fragments from two photons combining.  Or how two full waves cause only one recorded dot.

    The double slit experiment is interpreted to prove that a photon with a specific energy can split into two independent waves to pass through the slits.  The independent pieces then propagate as two independent waves that travel different distances to a point on a surface of a material in our four-space.  Here they recombine to react on the surface of a four-space material.  

    There are dozens of experiments that should have been done over the last hundred years, but were not done.  A beginning new look at the experiment is needed…. At this point I started to write a list of variables to change in the experiments.   There are just too many to try to cover at this level of inquiry. 

    I will make one direction of inquiry.  Is the horizontal structure of the photon segmented in such that specific places can be broken or stretchable and that the photon holds together as it goes through the slits?  Then it reshapes on the far side of the slits?  However, since more of the photon went through one slit than the other and took different times, the direction of propagation is changed.   This is an alternate idea to the usual explanation of the results of the two-slit experiment.   

    If you look at the full width range of impacts on the target surface. It is a great many wavelengths wide.  So does each of the two waves spread that width and react together at some spot.  Or do the two waves hang together just a few wavelengths wide and then reform into the original but redirected wave shape.  

    Also to be explained is how single atoms as large Buckyballs behave in the same manner.   I have taken the position that single atoms and molecules can change state into waves. 

    Also to be explained is why and how the two different wave fragments can cross with other fragments many times and not react with each other, but do react with each other when hitting the target four-space structure.  More proof of a change of state when reacting with four-space? I do believe that the ideas offered here are more likely to be correct than what has been offered by science so far.   

    What is totally lacking in double slit experiments is the possible study of size.  There are dozens of experiments that were not done.  The authority figures that described the experiments appear to be too intimidating.  Fortunately, I will chance being wrong.  


    The Big Bang theory has occupied many people for years to try to work out all the results from such an event.  Many man years lost. Of course that is just my opinion. 

    The BB theory started because it was noted that there was a shift toward the red, or that is lower frequency of atomic radiation lines, the further stars were from us.  The assumption was that it was caused by the apparent frequency shift due to the Doppler effect of moving signal sources.  This worked back to a single point for all stars and or galaxies. 

    Let us take a look at some mathematics. 

    Let Y=(e^(-X))dX

    If you rotate this line around the X axis you get a surface that defines a volume and a surface.  If you solve for the surface area you get an infinity.  So, it would take an infinite amount of paint to coat the surface.   But if you ask how much paint you would need to fill the volume, you get a finite number.  Basically, dividing by zero gives you an infinity.  But infinity is not a number, it is a forever process.  When these physicists got their infinity, they decided to believe it and proceeded onward.  They would have been better off if they had taken Axiom 2 and considered something else.  Here is a little of the something else.

    When the scientists state that the entire universe was the size of anything, say a basketball, they are visualizing a volume with a surface and a volume external to the basketball.  If they only discuss the ‘inside of the basketball volume’ just leave them alone or ask what is the volume that the universe is expanding into.  If there is no discussion of what is ‘outside of the basketball’, just leave them alone and ignore them.  They have not even started working on the problem. 

    Our space-time is predicted to be warped by mass and or gravity.  It must necessarily be warped such that we can never see an outside surface, IE an outside border.  We cannot visualize that, so just stop and let these other people keep working.  We can generate a Mobius strip which only has one side.  We cannot visualize a volume with no surface.  Our mathematics will not work to do that.  

    I do see that the latest space telescope pictures have begun to show almost impossible galaxies that show problems with the big bang theory.  Surprise!   


    Gravity was assumed to an attraction between two masses.  However, if some things are moved toward each other, it is impossible to tell if they are pulled or pushed.   

    This writing assumes the existence of NTNS with certain properties.  If you look at the Casimir effect, two plates placed very close to each other are moved together by quantum effects.  These effects cause a pushing pressure on each plate by external forces to actually move in our four-space.  I assume that there is pressure from NTNS on materials, mass, in our four-space, that is caused by a partial displacement of particles in NTNS by a mass in our four-space.  This is totally based upon the small effect of the Casimir effect and a very large jump.  It would explain why no one has been able to solve gravity in hundreds of man years of effort.   It also means that the writer is not worried about being wrong. 

    I do believe that the strength and velocity of propagation of gravity is different for our four-space materials than it is for black holes.  

    I do believe that black holes are interfaces between four-space and NTNS. 

    I do hope that I have provided a few provocative ideas.  I did take one college course in atomic theory sixty years ago.  My thoughts about it are still the same.  Although I barely got an A in the course, I had stopped going to classes for the last six weeks.   While this entertaining to contemplate, it is a waste of time and life to study these topics too long. 


    Take a look at smoking and generating smoke rings.  Here is a case where a toroid, or doughnut shape, of swirling material is a stable, energy propagation form.  I once generated small toroids in water by dropping colored water drops into water.  Depending on the height of the fall from an eyedropper to the water, the shape of the drop changed.  Sometimes the drop just splashed.  From the best height, the drop entered the water easily and formed a toroid which propagated several inches into the water.   (Why would anyone do that? At the time I was raising tropical fish and selling some.)   For another stable rolling form, there are roll clouds sometimes at the front of thunder storms and temperature-changing fronts.  Since the idea offered here is that electromagnet fields propagate as an interface wave between our four-space and NTNS, I propose that these fields propagate something like smoke rings but expanding as they propagate.  If you look at the smoke ring, the basic motion can be horizontal, but the rotational energy is mainly stored in a formation that is vertical in the direction of propagation.  This matches the visualized magnetic field around and radiated from an antenna. 

    There can be other stable forms of energy propagation in the four-space/NTNS interface. Our four-space math may not fit due to at least one fact:  The propagation of energy in NTNS is a region where all things are instantaneous.  Time does not exist.  Light from a star a million light years away in our space reaches us in zero time in NTNS.  This is the accepted theory.  I have no problem with that.


    All of this offering is a little rambling.  It is written as stream of thought and not as a finished paper. 

    Trying to finish this off, I did not want to continue with anything else.  I am getting too old and this topic is about like having a wart.  You have it and will be happier when it is gone.  In looking how to finish, I went on line and found a site to dump on.  Also, ran into entanglement which I had avoided.  However, it turns out that entanglement with a signal being seen at both ends in our four-space is the perfect example to show that there is a NTNS that exists and is how the entangled photons propagate.  It is as close to a proof of the value of this work as one could get.  Two entangled particles are still connected in no time and no space.           Think about it.  They are in a region with/of NTNS.  Sometimes I wrote NSNT.  Even NSTD.  ‘D’ is density.  

    I am done.  I have added to the beginning ‘list of ideas you will find’. 

    You will find that entanglement is the illustration of propagation in the newly defined ‘ether’.

    There are no restrictions by the author in copying, reproduction, or use of any part of this paper.   It has an explanation of entanglement and a new start on gravity.  As an engineer, I will be working on a real, new problem or maybe just play guitar for a while.

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